In the last decade, shared use mobility has created new travel modes like carsharing, bikesharing, services like Uber and Lyft (sometimes called Transportation Network Companies), and private shuttles (like Bay-Area tech shuttles). Transit agencies struggle with these new transportation options, since they represent competition for riders. Some transit agencies are identifying ways to co-exist with TNCs.<ref>"MBTA to subsidize Uber, Lyft rides for customers with disabilities." "https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2016/09/16/first-its-kind-partnership-mbta-subsidize-uber-and-lyft-rides-for-customers-with-disabilities/QDdHJgzg87JpwbOazyW14H/story.html"</ref> Ridesourcing/Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) use smartphone apps to connect community drivers with passengers.<ref>Shaheen, Susan; Cohen, Adam (April 2016). "Smartphone Applications to Influence Travel Choices: Practices and Policies". https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop16023/fhwahop16023.pdf</ref> Examples of these services include: Lyft, Uber (specifically, uberX, uberXL, and UberPool), as well as specialized services, such as Lift Hero (older adults and those with disabilities) and HopSkipDrive (rides for children either to/from school or afterschool). These services can provide many different vehicle types including: sedans, sports utility vehicles, vehicles with car seats, wheelchair accessible vehicles, and vehicles where the driver can assist older or disabled passengers. While taxis are often regulated to charge static fares, TNCs typically uses market-rate pricing, popularly known as “surge pricing” when prices usually go up during periods of high demand to incentivize more drivers to take ride requests.
Cities are increasingly recognizing the potential of bicycle transportation to reduce congestion, improve environmental and public health, increase accessibility, and complement transit. Along with infrastructure improvements, bikeshare
is one of the best ways to encourage cycling in a city. The number of bikeshare systems around the world has grown exponentially in the past decade. The Institute for Transportation & Development Policy’s Bike-Share Planning Guide
offers a comprehensive look the process of developing and implementing a bikeshare system.