In the last decade, shared use mobility has created new travel modes like carsharing, bikesharing, services like Uber and Lyft (sometimes called Transportation Network Companies), and private shuttles (like Bay-Area tech shuttles). Transit agencies struggle with these new transportation options, since they represent competition for riders. Some transit agencies are identifying ways to co-exist with TNCs.<ref>"MBTA to subsidize Uber, Lyft rides for customers with disabilities." "https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2016/09/16/first-its-kind-partnership-mbta-subsidize-uber-and-lyft-rides-for-customers-with-disabilities/QDdHJgzg87JpwbOazyW14H/story.html"</ref> Ridesourcing/Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) use smartphone apps to connect community drivers with passengers.<ref>Shaheen, Susan; Cohen, Adam (April 2016). "Smartphone Applications to Influence Travel Choices: Practices and Policies". https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop16023/fhwahop16023.pdf</ref> Examples of these services include: Lyft, Uber (specifically, uberX, uberXL, and UberPool), as well as specialized services, such as Lift Hero (older adults and those with disabilities) and HopSkipDrive (rides for children either to/from school or afterschool). These services can provide many different vehicle types including: sedans, sports utility vehicles, vehicles with car seats, wheelchair accessible vehicles, and vehicles where the driver can assist older or disabled passengers. While taxis are often regulated to charge static fares, TNCs typically uses market-rate pricing, popularly known as “surge pricing” when prices usually go up during periods of high demand to incentivize more drivers to take ride requests.
The "Last mile"
or "first and last-mile" connection describes the beginning or end of an individual trip made primarily by public transportation. In many cases, people will walk to transit if it is close enough. However, on either end of a public transit trip, the origin or destination may be difficult or impossible to access by a short walk. This gap from public transit to destination is termed a last mile connection
Intercity rail is a common example: a traveler reaches their local train station, but after getting off the train has no way to access the final destination. The traveler might have driven to the train station at the start, or perhaps they took a local bus or walked. The train carries them a long distance to another city where the final destination is too far to walk to from the station. Without some form of connection in the destination city, travelers become effectively stranded near the end. This example can be applied to any mode of transit.