Contracted transit operators also work more overtime than publicly employed transit workers.
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==Additional effects from contracting==
Contracting labor has been associated with a decline in service quality. Contracted transit service has been found to have up to 70% more collisions and 34% more mechanical breakdowns than through comparable publicly provided service. <ref>Nicosia, Nancy (2002), “Essays on Competitive Contracting: An Application to the Mass Transit Industry”, University of California, Berkeley, unpublished dissertation.</ref>