== Introduction ==
Deep discount group passes can be offered by transit agencies as an incentive for increasing ridership among large groups of typically centralized people while boosting agency revenue. DDGP programs are commonly offered to employers and universities. The employer pays for the privilege of offering its employees unlimited use of the transit system. The cost assessed by the transit agency to the employer would be significantly less than the employer buying passes for every single employee. However, it still generates new revenue for the transit agency because the lure of "free" transit incentivizes the employees to ride when previously very few probably used transit. Since effectively all of those riders are new, even if they are not individually paying the full fare, the partnership between the transit agency and the employer generates new revenue.
DenverUniversity of WashingtonCalifornia
Brown, Jeffrey and Daniel Baldwin Hess, and Donald Shoup. “Fare-Free Public Transit at Universities: An Evaluation,” Journal of Planning Education and Research, 23(1), 2003 pp. 69–82.
Nuworsoo, Cornelius, “Deep Discount Group Pass Programs: Innovative Transit Finance,” Berkeley Planning Journal, 18 (2005), pp. 151-165.